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Difference between revisions of "ATC"

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== Arriving ==
 
== Arriving ==
Once arriving aircraft get close the point of landing, descend them to the pattern altitude and begin deciding on a landing sequence. You should have 2 traffic patterns available, one rectangular pattern 1000 feet above the airfield, and an overhead pattern 1500 feet above the airfield.  
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Once arriving aircraft get close the point of landing, descend them to the pattern altitude and begin deciding on a landing sequence. 2 traffic patterns should be available, one rectangular pattern 1000 feet above the airfield, and an overhead pattern 1500 feet above the airfield.  
 
 
Aircraft that desire the overhead pattern should be instructed to "REPORT INITIAL." Once they report initial, instructions can be given where to break if needed, or they can be told to continue. Once in the break, clearance to land can be issued. The clearance to land is of the form "(Flight), check wheels down, runway (runway), cleared to land."
 
  
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[[File:Overhead_pattern.jpg|thumb|Overhead pattern]]
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Aircraft that desire the overhead pattern should be instructed to "REPORT INITIAL for runway (runway)." Once they report initial, instructions can be given where to break and what direction if needed, or they can be told to continue if the break is pre-briefed. Once in the break, clearance to land can be issued. The clearance to land is of the form "(Flight), check wheels down, runway (runway), cleared to land."
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[[File:Rectangular_pattern.jpg|thumb|Rectangular Pattern]]
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Aircraft desiring the rectangular pattern should be instructed to enter the pattern either on the downwind, base, or final legs (known as a straight in). This follows the form: "(Flight), enter the (direction of turns) (leg) for runway (runway)." Landing clearance is typically given on base or final and follows the same form as the overhead pattern.
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== Tips ==
 
== Tips ==

Revision as of 00:31, 24 May 2020

This page or section is currently under construction. Some things may be missing or out of place.


Ever wondered how to sound like you've never seen the sunlight an air traffic controller? Wonder no more, this is for you!

Most of this information is taken out of the 7110.65 (The U.S. ATC bible).

Basic Principles

As an air traffic controller, your job is to make sure goons get to where they need to go without hitting themselves or the ground.

Closed Loop Communication

As a refresher, closed loop communication is the practice of reading back the sender's message. This serves as a double check to make sure you received the message correctly, and gives the sender the opportunity to correct you if your read back was incorrect.

Example:

  ATC:      Goon 420, turn left heading 300.
  Goon 420: Turn left heading 30, Goon 420.
  ATC:      Goon 420, Negative. Turn left heading 300.
  Goon 420: Turn left heading 300, Goon 420.

As a general rule of thumb, all ATC instructions should be read back. Advisory information such as the weather does not have to be read back.

Correcting yourself or others

It's highly likely that at some point you or someone else will say something wrong. If you make a mistake in a call or readback simply stop, say "Correction", and repeat the wrong section again with the corrected information (Ex. Goon 420, Climb and maintain FL290, correction, climb and maintain FL300).

If someone else reads back your transmission incorrectly, respond "Negative," and repeat your transmission again. The entire transmission is repeated in case the receiver missed some other part of the message.

Signing on/off

When signing onto an ATC radio, the flight should check in by stating: "(ATC), (Flight), (Position), (Intentions)." For example, if returning for landing a flight should sign on "Bono approach, Goon flight, 50 miles NW Khasab, Inbound." This allows the controller to find you on the scope and give you appropriate instructions.

ATC can send flights to other frequencies in two ways. The first transfers the flight to another controller and follows the form: "(Flight), contact (controller) on (frequency)." The other releases control and allows the flight to change to any frequency desired and follows the form: "(Flight), frequency change approved." With both the flight should simply read back the instruction and change frequencies.


VFR

Taxiiing

Once the entire flight is ready to taxi to the runway, lead should call ATC and report "ready to taxi." The response will be of the form "(Runway), taxi via (Route)." Example: Wiggum, Smithers, runway 12L, taxi via A. Flights may also be instructed to follow behind other flights. Ensure you have the correct flight in sight before accepting a follow instruction.

The flight should hold short for the target runway and report when they're next for the runway.

Departing

Once next for the runway and takeoff checklists are complete, the flight should call "ready for departure"

Tip: The word takeoff is not used EXCEPT for takeoff clearances to prevent confusion.


If the runway is not ready for another departure, flights may be instructed to line up on the runway with the phrase "line up and wait" (Example, Wiggum, runway 12L, line up and wait). This gives the flight permission to taxi onto the runway and line up. If there are departing aircraft in the way, it is implied that the flight can wait for them to move before lining up.

The takeoff clearance is of the form: "(Flight), Wind (Wind), Runway (Runway), cleared for takeoff." (Example: Wiggum, Wind 320 at 7, runway 12L, cleared for takeoff). Additional instructions may be given at the end of the message if needed to maintain separation (e.g. Wiggum, Wind 320 at 7, runway 12L, cleared for takeoff, fly heading 090).

Departing Separation

En Route

At the en route phase the controller will be more concerned about their AWACS duties, but the controller should still attempt to maintain separation between flights by adjusting altitude/speed/heading, especially in low visibility conditions.

  • Changing speed - (Flight), Increase/Decrease/Maintain (speed) (Example: Wiggum, maintain mach .8; Wiggum, increase speed to mach .9)
  • Changing altitude - (Flight), Climb/descend and maintain (altitude) (Example: Wiggum, climb and maintain FL340)
  • Changing heading - (Flight), turn left to/turn right to/fly heading (heading) (Example: Wiggum, fly heading 300)

When approaching AO ensure flights have enough room to maneuver without hitting anyone.

Arriving

Once arriving aircraft get close the point of landing, descend them to the pattern altitude and begin deciding on a landing sequence. 2 traffic patterns should be available, one rectangular pattern 1000 feet above the airfield, and an overhead pattern 1500 feet above the airfield.

Overhead pattern

Aircraft that desire the overhead pattern should be instructed to "REPORT INITIAL for runway (runway)." Once they report initial, instructions can be given where to break and what direction if needed, or they can be told to continue if the break is pre-briefed. Once in the break, clearance to land can be issued. The clearance to land is of the form "(Flight), check wheels down, runway (runway), cleared to land."

Rectangular Pattern

Aircraft desiring the rectangular pattern should be instructed to enter the pattern either on the downwind, base, or final legs (known as a straight in). This follows the form: "(Flight), enter the (direction of turns) (leg) for runway (runway)." Landing clearance is typically given on base or final and follows the same form as the overhead pattern.

Tips

  • As a controller, reports are the way to control lots of aircraft. Asking people to report reaching altitudes, report reaching initial, report holding short, etc. passes off some of the responsibility onto the pilot and prevents you from getting task saturated.
  • If a flight gives you an advisory message, nothing is required for a response except "(Flight), roger."

IFR

This page or section is currently under construction. Some things may be missing or out of place.


We don't do this yet, will fill out later